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Thursday
Nov222007

Cinnamon

The use of Cinnamon as a spice and as a medicine dates back to 2000 BC. There are two types of Cinnamon which are known to as Chinese Cinnamon and Ceylon Cinnamon. While they have a similar flavor, Ceylon Cinnamon is a bit sweeter and is considered be of a more refined and higher quality.
Just half a teaspoon of cinnamon a day significantly reduces blood sugar levels in diabetics, a new study has found. The effect, which can be produced even by soaking a cinnamon stick your tea, could also benefit millions of non-diabetics who have blood sugar problem but are unaware of it.
The discovery was initially made by accident, by Richard Anderson at the US Department of Agriculture's Human Nutrition Research Center in Beltsville, Maryland. "We were looking at the effects of common foods on blood sugar; one was the American favorite, apple pie, which is usually spiced with cinnamon. We expected it to be bad. But it helped," he says.
The active ingredient in cinnamon turned out to be a water-soluble polyphenol compound called MHCP. In test tube experiments, MHCP mimics insulin, activates its receptor, and works synergistically with insulin in cells.

To see if it would work in people, Alam Khan, who was a postdoctoral fellow in Anderson's lab, organized a study in Pakistan. Volunteers with Type 2 diabetes were given one, three or six grams of cinnamon powder a day, in capsules after meals.

All responded within weeks, with blood sugar levels that were on average 20 per cent lower than a control group. Some even achieved normal blood sugar levels. Tellingly, blood sugar started creeping up again after the diabetics stopped taking cinnamon.

In the volunteers, the Cinnamon also lowered blood levels of fats and "bad" cholesterol, which are also partly controlled by insulin. And in test tube experiments it neutralized free radicals, damaging chemicals which are elevated in diabetics.

Cinnamon's essential oils also qualify it as an "anti-microbial" food, and cinnamon has been studied for its ability to help stop the growth of bacteria as well as fungi, including the commonly problematic yeast Candida.

In a study, published in the August 2003 issue of the International Journal of Food Microbiology, the addition of just a few drops of cinnamon essential oil to approximately 3 ounces of carrot broth, which was then refrigerated, inhibited the growth of the food borne pathogenic Bacillus cereus for at least 60 days. When the broth was refrigerated without the addition of cinnamon oil, the pathogenic B. cereus flourished despite the cold temperature. In addition, researchers noted that the addition of cinnamon not only acted as an effective preservative but improved the flavor of the broth.
Research led by Dr. P. Zoladz and presented April 24, 2004, at the annual meeting of the Association for Chemoreception Sciences, in Sarasota, FL, found that chewing cinnamon flavored gum or just smelling cinnamon enhanced study participants' cognitive processing. Specifically, cinnamon improved participants' scores on attention related processes, virtual recognition memory, working memory, and visual-motor speed while working on a computer-based program.

(Hint: simmer a few cinnamon sticks in water while your kids are doing their homework – this will also serve as wonderful yet non-toxic air freshener for your home)
In addition to the active components in its essential oils and its nutrient composition, cinnamon has also been valued in energy-based medical systems, such as Traditional Chinese Medicine, for its warming qualities. In these traditions, cinnamon has been used to provide relief when faced with the onset of a cold or flu, especially when mixed in a tea with some fresh ginger.

Tuesday
Nov132007

Differentiating Your Hormones for Replacement

Estradiol (E2)

Estradiol, the principal estrogen found in a woman's body during the reproductive years, is produced by the ovaries. Estradiol may be very effective for the symptomatic relief of hot flashes, genitourinary symptoms, osteoporosis prophylaxis, psychological well-being and reduction of coronary artery disease.

Because it is much more potent than estriol, it might be more effective for symptomatic relief than estriol. When estradiol is replaced using a parenteral (sublingual, pellet implant, percutaneous, or transdermal) route, it may not be subject to first-pass metabolism by the liver, and therefore does not produce high levels of estrone. Using these routes of administration, a woman might be able to mimic the physiologic release of estradiol from the ovaries, thus receiving natural hormone replacement
 
Estriol (E3)

Estriol is the weakest in potency, and the least stimulating to breast and uterine tissue of the three ovarian estrogens. Estriol is also produced during pregnancy. Our Bio-identical estrogen formulations contain estriol as the major component.
Estriol is the weakest of the three major estrogens. In fact, it is 1,000 times weaker in its effect on breast tissue. Dr. Jonathan Wright’s research with menstruating women has shown that estriol is a major hormone during the menstrual cycle years.  Estriol is the estrogen that is made in large quantities during pregnancy and has potential protective properties against the production of cancerous cells.

An important article in the 1966 Journal of the American Medical Association by H.M. Lemmon, M.D., reported a study showing that higher levels of estriol in the body correlate with remission of breast cancer. Dr. Lemmon demonstrated that women with breast cancer had reduced urinary excretion of estriol. He also observed that women without breast cancer have naturally higher estriol levels, compared with estrone and estradiol levels, than women with breast cancer. Vegetarian and Asian women have high levels of estriol, and these women are at much lower risk of breast cancer than are other women. Estriol's anti-cancer effect is probably related to its anti-estrone properties it blocks the stimulatory effect of estrone by occupying the estrogen receptor sites on the breast cells.

Estriol is the estrogen that may be most beneficial to the vagina, cervix and vulva. In cases of vaginal dryness and atrophy, which predisposes a woman to vaginitis and cystitis, topical estriol may be the most effective and safest estrogen to use. Because of this, estriol might be better than estradiol for the treatment of urinary tract infections.

None of the American drug products contain Estriol, so it is not available in most drug stores, although it has been used widely in Europe for over fifty years. Because estriol cannot be patented, it does not hold much interest for the pharmaceutical industry. Its availability through compounding has caused its use to grow rapidly throughout the country.
 
Estrone (E1)

Estrone is the estrogen most commonly found in increased amounts in postmenopausal women. The body derives it from the hormones that are stored in body fat. Estrone may do the same work that estradiol does, but it might be considered weaker in its effects.
 
Biest

Biest is a combination of two estrogens: estriol and estradiol. It is most commonly found in a ratio of 80:20, estriol to estradiol. This combination might allow for all of the protection of estriol, while potentially providing the cardiovascular and osteoporosis benefits and vasomotor symptom relief of estradiol.
 
Triest

Triest is a combination of three estrogens: estriol, estradiol and estrone. It is most commonly found in a ratio of 80:10:10, estriol, estradiol, and estrone. This combination is very popular and contains all of the three major circulating estrogens. It may be slightly weaker in its effect when compared to biest. However, this may be compensated for by increasing the strength or by slightly changing the ratios.
 
Progesterone

Progesterone is produced by the ovaries and the adrenal glands in women and, in smaller amounts, in the testes and the adrenal glands in men. One of its most important functions is in the female reproductive cycle. Progesterone may prepare the lining of the uterus for implantation of a fertilized egg, then may help to maintain it during pregnancy. If pregnancy does not occur, it signals the uterus to shed this lining.

Progesterone also may play an important role in brain function and is often called the "feel good hormone" because of its potentially mood-enhancing and anti-depressant effects. Optimum levels of progesterone might signify feelings of calm and well-being, while low levels of progesterone may mean feelings of anxiety, irritability and even anger. Current research shows that progesterone may play a role in the maintenance of the nervous system, the sense of touch, and motor function.
 
Testosterone

Usually considered a male hormone or androgen, testosterone is also produced by women, although in much smaller amounts than in men. Testosterone works differently in the bodies of men and women, but it may play a very important role in the overall health and well-being of both sexes. Often called the "hormone of desire" because of its potentially powerful effect on libido, testosterone may also be important in building strong muscles, bones, and ligaments as well as a probable increase of energy and ease of depression. Low levels of testosterone might cause fatigue, irritability, depression, aches and pain in the joints, thin and dry skin, osteoporosis, weight loss, and the loss of muscle development.

As with all of the hormones, testosterone must be dosed properly to be effective without causing unwanted side effects. The dose in women is generally one-tenth that used in men. Because testosterone may not be effective when it is taken orally, it is usually prescribed as a topical gel or cream or as a sublingual tablet.
 
Pregnenolone

Pregnenolone might be a "superhormone" that is the key to keeping our brains functioning at peak capacity. Some scientists believe it may be the most potent memory enhancer of all time. Perhaps what is even more amazing are the studies that demonstrate pregnenolone may enhance our ability to perform on the job while heightening feelings of well-being. In other words, this hormone appears to make us not only smarter, but also happier.

Like the other steroid hormones, pregnenolone is synthesized from cholesterol. In a complex series of steps, cholesterol is broken down into different steroid hormones as the body needs them. It is first synthesized into pregnenolone and used by the body in that form. What is not utilized undergoes a chemical change that "repackages" it into DHEA. DHEA, in turn, is used by the body as DHEA and is also broken down into estrogen and testosterone. This chain of hormones is known as the "steroid pathway." Because pregnenolone gives birth to the other hormones, it is sometimes referred to as the "parent hormone."

Pregnenolone was studied extensively in the 1940s. It was shown to be beneficial in possibly elevating mood, improving concentration, fighting mental fatigue, improving memory and relieving severe joint pain and fatigue in arthritis. Pregnenolone may have vast therapeutic potential and is currently undergoing further studies.
 
DHEA

Short for dehydroepiandrosterone, DHEA is a steroid hormone distinguished from others by its unique chemical structure. DHEA is produced by the adrenal glands (located just above the kidneys) as well as by the brain and the skin, and is the most abundant steroid in the human body.

As newborns, we have an extremely high level of DHEA, but within a few days after birth, our DHEA level drops to nearly zero. Then between the ages of six and eight, we experience the event called "adrenarche," in which our adrenal glands begin to stir and gear up for puberty. At the same time, our DHEA level begins to rise steadily and continues to rise until it peaks at around age twenty-five to thirty. From that point on, it declines at a rate of about 2 percent a year, and we begin to feel the result of this decline in our mid-forties. By eighty, our DHEA level is only fifteen percent of what it was when we were twenty-five. This drop in DHEA levels correlates dramatically with the signs and symptoms associated with aging.

DHEA is currently the focus of some of the most exciting medical research of this century. Researchers at distinguished medical centers all over the country are studying the properties and promise of DHEA. It may be a potent protector against cancer. It might protect against heart disease by lowering blood cholesterol and preventing blood clots. Studies also demonstrate that DHEA may improve memory, strengthen the immune system, prevent bone loss, and may even protect us from diabetes and autoimmune disease. It may aid in the fight against fatigue and depression; it also might enhance feelings of well-being and might increase strength. DHEA may alleviate symptoms of menopause, reduce body fat, and might even enhance libido .

Tuesday
Nov132007

HRT-Cancer Link Obscures Benefits of Biologically Identical Hormones

The international cancer research agency concluded that estrogen and progestin therapy slightly increases the risk of breast and cervical cancer and that a common type of birth control pill increases the risk of more types of cancer than previously thought. This latest announcement fuels the fire started in 2002, when the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) study reported that combined use of synthetic estrogen and progesterone increased the risk of breast cancer, heart attacks, stroke, and blood clots.

Menopausal women who are frightened by these results should consult their healthcare providers about other options, including plant-based BHRT (also called human identical HRT), the chemical composition of which exactly matches the hormones made naturally by the human body.  “Studies on BHRT have not demonstrated the side effects occurring with synthetic hormones and, in fact, suggest benefits in terms of reduced heart disease, stroke, osteoporosis, cancer, and Alzheimer’s disease as well as quality of life.”

Authors of the WHI study noted that “the results of this study do not necessarily apply to other formulations of oral estrogens and progestins (natural progesterone)” and that “it remains possible that estradiol and progesterone, which more closely mimic the normal physiology and metabolism of endogenous sex hormones, may provide a different risk-benefit profile.”

The differences between synthetic and biologically identical hormones are in their chemical structure and function. Premarin®, for example, the mostly commonly prescribed form of synthetic estrogen, is derived from the urine of pregnant mares and is thus foreign to the human female. Biologically identical hormones are chemical and functional twins of those produced by human reproductive organs and adrenal glands.

Among the advantages of BHRT, in addition to matching the hormones produced by the human body, is that prescriptions can be customized to suit each woman’s individual needs. Various dosages forms also are available, including transdermal gels, sublingual tablets, and subdermal pellets, which provide more consistent and natural means of delivery.

The WHI study linked some of the detrimental effects of synthetic hormones to their oral administration (swallowing capsules). The hormones travel directly to the stomach and liver and are broken down, minimizing the benefits by more than half and subjecting patients to an increased risk of such conditions as breast cancer. Oral estrogens may increase body fat mass and reduce lean body mass, thus raising risk factors for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and other cancers. Studies indicate that Premarin® increases C-reactive protein, a marker of inflammation in the blood associated with a higher risk of heart disease, but transdermal delivery of estrogen does not appear to have the same effect (Vehkavaara et al., 2001; Vongpatanasin et al., 2003).

Women considering the risks and benefits of HRT should make an informed decision, based on their symptoms, current health, and medical history, in conjunction with their healthcare provider and consulting pharmacist. For more information on HRT and other women’s health issues, visit www.collegepharmacy.com and request more information via one of the online forms.

References
Vehkavaara S, Silveira A, Hakala-Ala-Pietila T, Virkamaki A, Hovatta O, Hamsten A, Taskinen MR, Yki-Jarvinen H. Effects of oral and transdermal estrogen replacement therapy on markers of coagulation, fibrinolysis, inflammation and serum lipids and lipoproteins in postmenopausal women. Thromb Haemost. 2001 Apr;85(4):619-25.

Vongpatanasin, Wanpen, MD, FACC et al. Differential Effects of Oral versus Transdermal Estrogen Replacement Therapy on C-Reactive Protein in Postmenopausal Women. Dallas, Texas and Sacramento, California. JACC Vol. 41, No. 8, 2003. “Estrogen and Inflammatory Markers.” April 16, 2003:1358-63.

Tuesday
Nov132007

Male Testosterone Therapy

Yes, there may well be such a thing as male menopause, but the malaise goes far beyond the so-called "midlife crisis" of popular culture. More specifically, the male version of menopause is the gradual decline in the chief male sex hormone, testosterone, which in the average man begins as early as the third decade of life. Most men remain unaware of the decline, but researchers now believe that it may be associated with common age-related changes like high cholesterol, muscle weakness, weight gain, and heart problems.
Q: Do men undergo something like menopause as they age?
A: The term "male menopause" is really something of a misnomer. What the average healthy man will experience as he ages is not a noticeable change, like female menopause, but a gradual decline in the principal male sex hormone, testosterone. The decrease can begin in the late 30s, and by the 70s, blood levels may have dropped by one-third to one-half of the levels observed in young men.
We believe that this decline is linked to common age-related changes in healthy men, such as decreases in muscle tissue and bone mineral density, increases in abdominal body fat, a rise in cholesterol, and deteriorating heart function, as well as psychological and sexual changes. We know that such hormonal associations with aging exist for women, and we can treat them with replacement therapy. We also know that young men with severe testosterone deficiency suffer from muscle weakness, osteoporosis and psychosexual dysfunction, and that these problems lessen or disappear when such men are given a testosterone supplement.
Q: What research is currently being done in this area?
A: Three large NIH-funded human trials have recently been completed. The tabulated data will likely confirm and extend our beliefs about the role of testosterone decline and supplementation in healthy aging men. We expect some important findings will be published next year that will allow us to look at the aging process differently, and help us take a kinder, gentler approach to improving older men's quality of life.
Q: Can the decline be treated with hormone replacement, as with postmenopausal women?
A: Smaller studies have already suggested that very gradually replacing testosterone in selected healthy men can actually reverse some of the age-related problems of muscle weakness, osteoporosis, high cholesterol and others. For example, It may be beneficial for some men to begin receiving supplemental therapy while still in their 30s.
Q: Is there a chance that testosterone supplements could cause prostate disease?
A: Studies suggest that although testosterone is not a cause of new prostate cancer, it can contribute to the growth of existing prostate cancer. For their safety, men with this cancer were excluded from all the studies and we carefully and continually screened other participants for any sign of the disease.  However, it's our hypothesis that slow, gentle supplementation to help men return to their previous blood levels of testosterone is safe for men who are cancer free at the inception of  testosterone therapy.
Q: Are there other potential complications of testosterone supplementation?
A: We know that a man's cholesterol profile can worsen with too much testosterone. However, based on our investigations of men with deficiencies, we believe that slow, gentle supplementation can actually improve their condition, lowering the bad cholesterol and boosting the good.
Q: Can elderly men with other age-related illnesses benefit, or is the therapy limited to the healthy?
A: Elderly men who suffer from co-morbid conditions such as malnutrition, heart disease and diabetes mellitus also appear to have a more severe decline in testosterone than do healthy men. We believe they can gain particular benefits from supplementation, and researchers are starting to look at possible usefulness in diverse frail elderly populations. We hope that the therapy can prolong their independence and improve their quality of life.
I hope you will find our abstract  from the InteliHealth Newsletter interesting and informative.  Testosterone therapy should be considered in the larger concept of endocrine balance, the goal being the optimal range for a 30 y/o.  If testosterone is deficient there is a high probability that other hormone levels may also be deficient.  Therapeutic success is best achieved with balance, much like a symphony orchestra playing Beethoven.  All the instruments are necessary and they have to be playing synchronously.
Our goals are:
·        Optimal brain function,
·        High energy including sexual energy and performance,
·        A strong immune system to lower the risk of disease and
·        Body composition, with normal muscle/fat ratios, not only for appearance but also, for health.
A full endocrine evaluation is necessary before embarking on any endocrine intervention.  Remember the goal is a balanced 30y/o physiology.

Tuesday
Nov132007

The role of natural hormones in managing menopause

As women age and approach their 40’s, subtle and in some cases more obvious changes in hormone levels can result in noticeable changes in how they feel. In some cases, symptoms develop at ages as early as the 30’s. Birth control pill users may notice symptoms that indicate hormone imbalance that require medical attention. Premature menopause can develop from surgery to the ovaries, uterus, tubal ligation, radiation or chemotherapy. Surgery induced menopause requires immediate hormone replacement. Chemotherapy and radiation can be damaging to the ovaries and interfere with hormone production. While we usually think of estrogen lacking around this time, in some cases women can be helped with progesterone replacement only. Progesterone can be especially helpful for those who aren’t ovulating monthly (major source of progesterone). Maybe you have noticed changes like you’re not sleeping as well at night, or you seem more irritable and anxious lately. Perhaps you’re having more frequent headaches, or you are experiencing urination problems. Sometime a visit to your health provider is helpful. Other times you leave the office frustrated and feel that you haven’t accomplished your goals. I’ve found that some practitioners aren’t interested in working closely with their patients who are experiencing annoying hormone imbalance problems. Assessing and managing women with a hormone imbalance requires considerable time and expertise. Objective data (hormone testing levels), along with a complete physical and a detailed history are important in evaluating possible hormone problems. Let’s assume that your medical provider makes a diagnosis of hormone imbalance and with your permission decides to start hormone replacement. What are your choices? What hormones are available? Should you take the traditional hormone replacement, which is most often an estrogen that is either horse derived or synthetic, and a progestin (prevent uterine overgrowth) that is also synthetic? If you’re not offered alternatives (herbs, nutritional supplements, stress reduction, bio-identical hormones), then you will most likely follow the path of most women today, traditional hormone replacement. However, it’s not too late to educate yourself about healthier alternatives. In this newsletter we will investigate why many health professionals feel that menopausal women are being underserved by using commercially available formulations for their symptom management, bone density benefits, and heart disease.

Currently, conventional medicine uses strong synthetic hormones and birth control pills for most hormone related problems (PMS, infertility, post-hysterectomy, menstrual irregularities, menopause). These synthetic chemicals don’t fit perfectly into the hormone receptors that are found in our brain, bone, uterus, and other tissues in the body. I often use the analogy of a lock and key. If you use the wrong key to unlock your car door, you may find that the key enters the lock, however there isn’t a perfect fit and therefore, the lock doesn’t unlock and the door doesn’t open. Hormones that we produce in our body are made to fit exactly into the receptors that are located on the cells through-out our body. A hormone produced in the testes or ovary will always make a perfect match with the cell receptor. A synthetic hormone will never make a perfect match. It may bind to the receptor, however, it will produce a different action then the intended natural hormone. This different action accounts for the high likelihood of side effects that we see with traditional hormone replacement. We don’t see these side effects (if dosed appropriately) when we use hormones that are chemically identical to the ovarian hormone that we are replacing. In addition, the synthetic and horse obtained hormones are metabolized by the liver and excreted out of the body in a much slower and less complete fashion then a natural hormone would be. It makes sense that the body is set up to produce and excrete sex hormones in a safe and efficient method. Our body isn’t equipped with special cells and enzymes to breakdown and excrete man made hormones as efficiently as our own hormones. So what happens to these unnatural hormones? They may accumulate in the body and produce even more toxic effects. This helps to explain why so many women complain of unbearable side effects with traditional hormones. So far we have identified two differences between synthetic hormones and the hormones produced by our body. One difference being the binding ability and subsequent physiologic response that separates synthetic hormones from our natural hormones. The second difference being the metabolism and excretion by the body. There is a third difference. Synthetic hormones are more potent then natural hormones. Therefore, they suppress your own natural hormone production. We know that bio-identical hormones, when dosed appropriately, do not inhibit normal ovarian hormone production. We do not want to suppress the natural hormone production, we only want to supplement it.

So what can we do if we require hormone replacement (based on blood levels, medical history and physical exam), but we don’t want to take what’s usually offered? If you’re already using bio-identical hormones (chemically identical to human hormones) then you’ve already researched and made your decision. For those of you that are undecided, or are presently taking the synthetics, I would like to explain what your options are for hormone replacement. Before we do that I want to explain why the marketplace allows only synthetic hormone replacement.

I first need to explain why drug companies manufacture synthetic hormones and why doctors prescribe them. In the United States drug manufacturers research and eventually apply for a patent on hormones that appear promising in their studies. They spend millions of dollars proving that their hormone is safe and effective. Therefore, they expect and receive the right to be the exclusive distributor of that hormone. Through advertisements and continuing education programs, doctors learn about these hormones and eventually prescribe them for their patients. Natural hormones (those that are identical to ovarian hormone) are not patentable.

This means that anyone who manufactures and sells them won’t have exclusive distribution rights. Therefore, there is much less profit and very little incentive to manufacture them. This is where compounding pharmacists enter the hormone distribution process. Compounding pharmacies buy bulk hormones powders from chemical suppliers, and formulate the hormones into capsules, creams, lozenges, etc. We don’t have salespeople that market our products to prescribers. Our formulations become known primarily via word of mouth. We don’t have expensive studies to compare our compounded formulations to manufactured hormones, however we know that we are quite simply, replacing ovarian hormone with a hormone that is identical to the ovarian hormone. Some practitioners are annoyed at our lack of studies and will dismiss natural hormones. None the less, consumers interest in the natural alternatives continues to grow, and we find ourselves frequently explaining what natural hormones are to the public and to health practitioners. This continued interest has resulted in several community talks each year that I give on natural hormone replacement.

What are the bio-identical hormones that women require for proper hormone balance? The bio-identical hormones are as follows; estrone, estradiol, estriol, progesterone, DHEA, testosterone, and pregnenolone. All are available to compounding pharmacists in powder form from chemical suppliers. There are three estrogens produced by the ovary; estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), and estriol (E3). Estradiol is the most potent of the three and is an important hormone from puberty to menopause. Estrone is less potent then estradiol, and becomes an important hormone after menopause. Estriol is the least potent of the three, and is especially important for vaginal dryness and urinary problems. It is also the major estrogen during pregnancy. Estriol is touted to be the “safe” estrogen, and may compete with estradiol for receptor binding sites on the cell. The theory being that estriol is the least proliferative (less stimulating to breast and uterine cell growth) of the three estrogens, and therefore the safest.

By using the “right” balance of hormones, we might gain the benefits of hormone replacement without increasing the risk of cancer. Traditional estrogen replacement replaces only one of the three estrogens (only estradiol or estrone), and omits the “safe” estrogen, estriol. As reported in our last newsletter, women have a natural balance of weak and strong estrogens. For best health, there should be more weak estrogen (estriol) then strong (estradiol and estrone). The strong estrogens can cause breast cells to multiply and increase the risk of cancer.

In 1966, the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) published the article “Reduced Estriol Excretion in Patients with Breast Cancer.” Their conclusion was that breast cancer patients had more strong estrogens and less weak estrogens then women who don’t get breast cancer. We know that the body fat produces strong estrogens, which might explain why heavier women get more breast cancer.

Another JAMA article in 1978 titled “Estriol, the Forgotten Estrogen,” supported the theory of supplementing with estriol in patients who have had breast cancer. If estriol can block the strong estrogens form binding to the hormone receptors, it should, therefore, theoretically decrease the risk of cancer. I have included the references for these two articles at the bottom of this page.

For more information on bio-identical hormone replacement, visit your local book store. In addition, natural menopause talks will be given regularly at the Essex Learning Center in Essex Junction, Vermont. In the next newsletter we will talk about progesterone replacement.

Lemon HM et al. Reduced estriol excretion in patients with breast cancer prior to endocrine therapy.

JAMA 1966; 196(13): 112-120.

Folllingstad AH. Estriol, the forgotten estrogen?

JAMA 1978; 239 (1): 29-30.

Natural Hormone Class Schedule at the Essex Learning Center-call 878-5656 to register

July 16th, 2002 7:00-9:00 PM                           August 14th, 2002 7:00-9:00 PM

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